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- Relevance to problem statement.
- Specificity.
- Clarity and ease to understand – There should be no ambiguity and it should always be direct to the point.
- Measurable – one must be able to reject after data analysis
- Testability – There should be a way of manipulating variables and measuring the outcome variable.
- Should contain an independent and dependent variable. An independent variable is a variable that the researcher can manipulate as they wish to observe changes in the response/dependent variable.

This states that there is no relation between the phenomena under investigation. An example of a null hypothesis statement is: There is no relationship between gender and income

Alternative hypothesis is also referred to as the research hypothesis. It states that the researcher wishes to approve or disapprove. It is always a contrary of the null hypothesis and has the following forms;

This can be defined as a research hypothesis which does not specify the expected direction of a relationship under investigation. An example is H_{1}:µ≠100.

A directional research hypothesis specifies the direction of relationship or difference between variables. The direction can either be negative or positive; greater or less than. Examples of such hypotheses are H_{1} :µ< 100/>100, There exists a positive/negative relationship between education and socioeconomic status.

To conduct proper hypothesis testing, there are steps that should be followed. Check hypothesis testing steps for a conclusive discussion of the steps involved in hypothesis testing.

The process of formulating the hypothesis testing of a given research is usually very crucial. For you to formulate or develop a hypothesis you first have to conduct a background study on the research you want to conduct. This why one is able to understand the variables to use and the existing relationships between them. Secondly, depending on the objective of your study/research develop your research question(s). Lastly, identify possible answers to your research question(s). From these answers, create a measurable hypothesis. For instance if the research question was what is the effect of revising past papers on the student’s GPA? Possible answers to this question are: Revising past papers will increase the students’ GPA OR Revising past papers will increase the students’ GPA or Revising past papers will have no effect on the students GPA. The null hypothesis can be formulated as: There is no relationship between revising past papers and the student’s GPA. Depending on the initial literature review made, the alternative hypothesis can be revision of past papers increases/decreases the students’ GPA.

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